Chocolate Glossary – Part II

National Candy Month is in full swing! Here is another list of candy-making terms you should know:

HARD BUTTER – A vegetable fat other than cocoa butter, which is typically solid or semi-plastic at room temperature.

LAURIC FAT – A fat which contains the fatty acid, lauric acid. Coconut oil and palm kernel oil each contain lauric acid and are occasionally called “tropical fats.” Compound coatings containing a lauric fat typically requite tempering.

LECITHIN – A natural food additive which acts as an emulsifier and surface active agent.

MILK CHOCOLATE – Made by combining a minimum of 10% chocolate liquor and 12% milk with cocoa butter, sweeteners and sometimes flavorings.

NATURAL PROCESS – Non-alkalized chocolate liquor or cocoa processed without an alkaline treatment.

NIBS – The “meat” or center of the cocoa bean. Roasted or unroasted cocoa beans are mechanically cracked, allowing the separation of the cocoa bean shell from the cocoa nib.

PRESS CAKE – Product that remains after most of the cocoa butter has been pressed from the chocolate liquor. Press cake is pulverized to make cocoa powder.

ROASTING – A cooking or heating process using high temperature dry heat which fully develops the chocolate flavor of cocoa beans.

SLATE – The formation of stratified layers in a bar of chocolate. This is usually caused by the outer surface of the stream of chocolate filling a mould being colder than the center of the stream.

SWEET CHOCOLATE – Prepared by blending a minimum of 15% chocolate liquor with varying amounts of sweeteners and cocoa butter. Other flavors may sometimes be added.

TEMPERING – The process of preparing chocolate so that it will solidify in a stable crystal form. Proper tempering, when followed by good cooling, provides contraction from moulds and surface gloss absent of fat bloom. Tempering is required for chocolate products and certain confectionery products.

VANILLIN – An artificial substitute for vanilla.

VISCOSITY – A measure of coating thickness in melted form which determines its ability to cover a center of confectionery, cake, cookie or ice cream. Viscosity is affected by process and formulation variations.

WINNOWING – The process of cracking and removing the cocoa bean shell, revealing the inner part of the bean (the nib).

Information from Merckens.

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